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A scheme is presented for retrieving aerosol properties for ocean regions from reflected sunlight at both the visible and near infrared wavelengths measured by the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). For the Indian Ocean...
2002 (iso8601)
The effective radius of water cloud droplets is retrieved using remotely sensed passive microwave and visible data collected by aircraft during the Indian Ocean Experiment. The purpose of this study is to assess the aerosols’ effect on cloud...
2003 (iso8601)
The results of a new multispectral infrared retrieval scheme for obtaining fractional cloud cover and 11-μm emissivity are compared with those of the spatial coherence method which obtains fractional cloud cover assuming that the clouds are opaque...
1994 (iso8601)
In determining aerosol-cloud interactions, the properties of aerosols must be characterized in the vicinity of clouds. Numerous studies based on satellite observations have reported that aerosol optical depths increase with increasing cloud cover....
2008 (iso8601)
The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) used angular direction models (ADMs) to convert satellite scanning radiometer measurements to radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. The ADMs were assumed to depend only on the physical...
1996 (iso8601)
Simple threshold scene identification methods are developed to reduce the effects of errors in scene identifications on the anisotropy of reflected and emitted radiances inferred from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner observations....
1996 (iso8601)
Visible and near infrared reflectances from NOAA-14 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) daytime passes are used to derive optical depths at 0.55 μm, an index of aerosol type, continental or marine, and the direct effect of the aerosol...
2002 (iso8601)
Empirical estimates of the aerosol indirect radiative forcing often rely on threshold cloud retrievals applied to multispectral satellite imagery data. In such retrievals, pixels having radiances that surpass prescribed thresholds are assumed to...
2006 (iso8601)
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 4-km data collected over the northeastern Atlantic off the coast of the Iberian Peninsula for May to August 1995 were used to investigate the feasibility of empirically deriving estimates of the...
2005 (iso8601)
Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to...
2001-11-27 (iso8601)
A formalism is presented for quantifying the sampling error of an arbitrary linear estimate of a time-averaged quantity constructed from a time series of irregularly spaced observations at a fixed location. The method is applicable to any...
1991-08-15 (iso8601)
Satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature (SST) by the TRMM Microwave Imager reveal previously unreported features of tropical instability waves (TIWs). In the Pacific, TIW-related variability is observed from the eastern boundary to at...
2000-05-01 (iso8601)
Ten years of sea-surface height (SSH) fields constructed from the merged TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) and ERS-1/2 altimeter datasets are analyzed to investigate mesoscale variability in the global ocean. The higher resolution of the merged dataset reveals...
2007-08-09 (iso8601)
The wind speed and significant wave height (H1/3) dependencies of the sea state is in altimeter estimates of sea level, expressed in the form ∆hSSB=bH1/3, are examined from least squares analysis of 21 cycles of collinear TOPEX data. The bias...
1994-12-15 (iso8601)
Wind stress variability over the Benguela upwelling system is considered using 16 months (01 August 1999 to 29 November 2000) of satellite-derived QuikSCAT wind data. Variability is investigated using a type of artificial neural network, the...
2004-03-04 (iso8601)
Westward propagating Gaussian eddies with statistical characteristics estimated from altimeter observations but with purely random starting locations and times produce striated features in time-averaged maps of zonal velocity. The striations in...
2008-12-19 (iso8601)
Alias periods and wavelengths for the M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, and P1 tidal constituents are calculated for TOPEX/POSEIDON. Alias wavelengths calculated in previous studies are shown to be in error, and a correct method is presented. With the exception...
1994-12-15 (iso8601)
A simple statistic is derived for quantifying the potential for the aliasing of tidal errors in a given linear estimate of sea surface height constructed from altimeter data. The existence of M2 tidal constituent errors in Geosat data processed in...
1994-06-15 (iso8601)
The primary impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on marine biogeochemical cycles predicted so far include ocean acidification, global warming induced shifts in biogeographical provinces, and a possible negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels...
2008 (iso8601)
A new model of the marine ecosystem coupled into a global Earth System Climate Model suitable for long-term (multimillennial timescale) simulations is presented. The model is based on nitrate as the sole limiting nutrient. Prognostic equations for...
2005-07-13 (iso8601)
A new model of global climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling, including a fully coupled carbon cycle, is presented and evaluated. The model is consistent with multiple observational data sets from the past 50 years as...
2008-02-14 (iso8601)
Most climate models predict a weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation for the 21st century when forced by increasing levels of greenhouse gas concentrations. The model spread, however, is rather large, even when the forcing...
2005-12-14 (iso8601)
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