|Title||Hydraulic predictors and seasonal distribution of Manayunkia speciosa density in the Klamath River, CA, with implications for ceratomyxosis, a disease of salmon and trout|
Grant, Gordon (advisor)
Jordan, Michelle S.
|Copyright Date||2012-11-09 (iso8601)|
|Note||Graduation date: 2013|
|Abstract||The freshwater polychaete Manayunkia speciosa was identified as an obligate host of the salmonid parasite Ceratomyxa shasta in 1997, prompting increased research on the small benthic invertebrate. Ceratomyxa shasta infection in fish can cause mortality, and presents a disease risk for both hatchery and wild salmon and trout. Ceratomyxa shasta is endemic to rivers of the Pacific Northwest, and its effects have been particularly well documented in the Klamath River, Oregon and California. One option for managing C. shasta impacts is by decreasing densities of M. speciosa through habitat manipulation, thus decreasing amplification of the parasite. The Klamath River is regulated by irrigation and hydropower dams, thus manipulating the hydrograph to destabilize habitat is a possibility. Decreasing habitat through flow manipulation requires a thorough understanding of the hydraulic environment of polychaete habitat, and how that environment changes with discharge. This thesis proposes an influence diagram of physical variables driving M. speciosa density, and investigates several of them. Samples were collected for enumerating M. speciosa
density from nine sites in the Klamath River over 15 months, and seasonal density changes were examined, as were the relationships between density and hydraulic variables (depth, average velocity, substrate size, Reynolds number, Froude number). Density increased directly with depth and inversely with velocity, and was greater on small (silt, sand) and large (boulder, bedrock) substrate relative to medium substrate (gravel, cobble). Density was highest in the summer (July, August, September), and there was evidence that summer densities were influenced by spring discharges through the mechanism of substrate mobilization. Differences in infection prevalence among seasons and habitats were also investigated; however, very low overall incidence of infection limited any conclusions. Based on these results, it is recommended that habitat modeling for management of M. speciosa populations include a habitat stability component that incorporates s whether peak discharge the previous year surpassed a stability threshold.
|Topic||Ceratomyxa shasta -- Klamath River (Or. and Calif.)|